4-Phase Rhinomanometry

The term “4-phase rhinomanometry” is corresponding to the term “High Resolution Rhinomanometry”, which was created by Vogt and Hoffrichter in 1994 to define a new way for depicting the relation between flow and differential pressure of the nasal air stream. This curve must have the shape of a closed loop instead of 2 simple lines crossing in the intersection of x- and y-axis. Such a loop shows an ascending and descending breathing phase in inspiration and expiration and is not necessarily running through the axis intersection.


During the Consensus Conference of the  “International Standardization Committee On The Objective Assessment Of The Upper Airway” in Brussels 2003 the term “4-Phase-Rhinomanometry” was proposed and has been appointed as important improvement of computerized rhinomanometry replacing the old methods, which have been based on the graphical evaluation by xy-recorders. The conference was followed by intensive international research, whose results are summarized in  Supplement 21 of the journal  “Rhinology” . In the content, the history, the physical and technical basement as well as the statistical evaluation of more than 1500 clinical cases can be found as well as the derivation of a new classification of nasal obstruction. This classification is based on the  evaluation of the logarithmically transformed Vertex Resistance VR and Effective Resistance Reff, by which the transistion from an estimation to a measurement as well as a high correlation between subjective symptoms and objective obstruction are achieved.


Within the practical part, hygienic requirements and different special applications of 4-phase rhinomanometry are described, in particular the correct coupling of the pressure tube at the nostril, preserving the elasticity of the nasal entrance.

The supplement can be downloaded for free from the homepage of “Rhinology” (www.rhinologyjournal.com).


4RHINO realizes as first rhinomanometer the practical conclusions of the interdisciplinary and worldwide cooperation of scientists in the field of the functional diagnostic of the nasal air stream.